Apr 28, 2008

Jain Monuments in Southern Karnataka

Dr. M. S. Krishna Murthy

Jainism, one of the oldest living faiths of India, has a hoary antiquity in Karnataka. No doubt, this religion took its birth in North India. However, within a couple of centuries of its birth, this religion is said to have entered into Karnataka. Jaina tradition ascribe III C.B.C. as the date of entry of this religion to south India, and in particular to Karnataka. After this period Jainism grew from strength to strength and heralded a glorious era, never to be witnessed in any part of India, to become a religion next only to Brahmanism in popularity and number. Though Jainism was spread over different parts of south India within the first few centureis of the Christian era, its nucleus as well as the stronghold was southern Karnataka. In fact, it is the general opinion that the history of Jainism in south India is predominantly the history of that religion in Karnataka. Such was the prominence that this religion enjoyed throughout the first millenium A.D. Liberal royal patron­age extended by the Kadambas, the Gangas, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rashtrakutas, the Nolambas, !he Kalyana Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar rulers and their successors, resulted in the uninterrupted growth of this religion in southern Karnataka on an unpreceden~ed scale.

The growth, spread and popularity of Jainism in Karnataka is best illustrated by the beautiful monuments that the Jains constructed in different parts of the State. A close study of these monuments in Karnataka, would, however, reveal that the Jainas has no separate architectural tradition of their own. In the general pattern of architectural and art forms, they, nevertheless, adopted or followed, the contemporary Brahmanical architectual style prevailing in Karnataka. That is to say during the early period their architecture was similar to the Dravidian temple forms as practiced by the Gangas, Chalukyas, Pallavas etc. During the Hoysala period, they conveniently followed the traditional Hoysala as well as Dravida styles. Again during the Vijayanagar and later periods they built basadis in the same popular Dravidian style.
Besides the structural basadis, there are also a few rock-cut Jaina monuments in Karnataka indicating no strong affiliation of the Jains to one particular mode of architecture. These rock-cut vestiges are very few in number and very humble in their execution. Therefore it is difficult to suggest that a separate tradition of rock-cut architecture was practiced by the Jains.

For the sake of study the existing important monuments of the Jains in Southern Karnataka have been classified into three chronological groups viz., I-the early period (Ganga Period), II-the middle period (Hoysala period) and III the later period (Vijayanagar and post-Vijayanagar).
I - EARLY PERIOD (GANGA PERIOD) : The chronology of the temples that come under this group is between 6th century to 10th century A.D. during which time most of the parts of southern Karnataka were ruled by the Western Gangas of Talkad. The patronage that they gave for the promotion of Jainism in their kingdom, is no doubt, unprecedented.

The general layout or plan of the Jaina structural temples of this period, as can be verified from the existing Jaina monuments, generally consists of a square 'garbhagriha', a 'sukanasi', a 'gudhamandapa' (navaranga') and in rare cases a small pillared porch ('mukha mandapa'/mukha Chatushki'). They are generally 'nirandhara' temples. No apsidal Jaina basadi is noticed so far. Normally the basadis are built inside an enclosure wall with a gateway in front, occasionally having a dwara­mandapa without a 'gopura' above.

The structure is built above a moulded plinth consisting of 'upana', 'Jagati' , kumuda' 'kantha' (with or without 'kampa') 'kapota' or 'prati', and 'pattika'. The walls of the basadis are filled, at regular intervals, with pilasters, having all the decorative features of the pillars found inside the temple. Pilasters support the corbels ('potika') and architrave ('valabhi') above. The architraves or beams some­times contains a frieze of 'hamsas' or 'Ganas' or similar other decoration. 'kapota', punctated by 'kudus' at regular intervals and 'hara' (parapet) above or 'pindi' (ceiling slab) occur above the wall. So is the general pattern of decoration of the exterior wall surface, which runs uniformly alround the structure.

The wall surface may, sometimes, have 'bhadras' or central projections and 'kosthas' (niches) at regular intervals, flanked by pilasters surmounting 'toranas'. The garbhagriha' normally contains a superstructure of a very simple form ('grive sikhara') or a storeyed tower i.e., a 'sikhara' -tower.

In the design and decoration of pillars, door frames, windows, the Jaina temples of this period show a remarkable affinity with the existing Brahmanical temple of the Dravidian style. However, in the decoration of the interiors, particularly the central part of the ceiling ('vitand') of the 'navaranga' one can see a slight difference, The Brahmanical temples generally contain the panels of 'asthadikpalakas' surrounding Siva (generally Nataraja). But in the Jaina basadis instead of Siva in the centre a seated Tirthankara is represented. The 'garbhagrihas' contain the image of a Jina either in seated or standing postures, placed against the back wall of the shrine, facing the doorway.

Now coming to the study of the monuments proper, we can, on definite grounds, say that the temple architecture of the Jains had a very early beginning in southern Karnataka, as gleaned from the epigraphical and archeological evi­dences. The Halsi copper plate inscriptionl records that Mrigeshavarma (455-80 A.D.) in memory of his father Santivarma (430-55 A.D.) got a Jinalaya constructed and gave liberal grants to Jaina ascetics. Many more records of the Kadambas of Banavasi refer to the grants made to several 'sanghas' of the Jainas and to 'arhadayatanas' that flourished in their kingdom.

Same was the case with southern parts of Karnataka which were under the political hold of the Gangas of Gangavadi. Sravanabelagola a part of the Ganga Kingdom, no doubt, was the nucleus of Jainism in south India even before the Gangas emerged as a political power to reckon with. Several hundred inscriptions of Sravanabelagola record the existence of many Jaina basadis, 'Sanghas' and celebrated 'munis' of the creed at this centre as well as in other parts of Gangawadi.

However, it may be said, that these religious edifices of the Jains had a very humble beginning. They were, at the best of their appearance, were not more than a simple brick and wood structure, without much show. Even these structures, extant to us, are in a very bad state of preservation, because of the softer media used for their construction like, brick, mud and wood.

In 1897 ruins of a brick basadi were discovered at Nonamangala, near Malur in Kolar district2. Two copper plate inscriptions3 and a few bronze objects were also discovered in the debris of the structure. One of the inscriptions (Mr 73) records that the Ganga King Madhava II (461-85 A.D.) during his third regnal year (474 A. D.) at the behest of Acharya Viradeva gave a land grant to an 'arhadayatana' that existed at Perbolal. The second copper plate records that during his first regnal year the king Avinita (C. 530-70 A. D), gifts to the 'arhadayatana' at Uranur and Perur, affiliated to 'Mulasangha' were given. These two grants no doubt refer to the basadi in the ruins of which they were discovered. Only the basement of this brick structure is found in a field two Kms. west of the village and the walls were composed of a very large size bricks which were only one to two inches in thickness. Near the doorway of the east, stuck in a crevice of the wall, were found plates Mr. 73. In the north wall, near the side of the shrine, was a small chamber or cupboard, partly projecting from the wall. In this were found plates Mr. 72, along with a number of other articles"4 Dr. I. K. Sarma opines that "The find spot where ruins of brick temples were encountered was the very Jaina establishment mentioned in the grants"5.

Recent excavations at Talkad 6 have brought to light the remains of a large brick structure buried under the debris as well as the sand dune. This structure identified as a Parsvanatha basadl7 is datable on stylistic ground to 7th, 8th century A.D.8.

This structure appears to have been built in two phases. The first phase consists of three cellas is a row, an early variant of a 'trikuta' on plan, fronted by a common narrow 'mukhamandapa'. In front of this slightly separated from the main structure, in the same axis, is another square pavillion. These two units form the first phase datable to 7th-8th century A.D. The ruined stumps of the 'garbhagriha' wall, brick paved flooring of the central 'garbhagriha', portions of the flooring of the left shrine and the complete structure below that level are the only remnants, of the basadi of the First phase. Only the shrines and the two sides of the porch appear to have had brick walls surmounting a wooden roof. The sides of the detached 'mandapa' were open. Supported on the wooden pillars, there was probably a wooden roof for this pavillion also, as evidenced by the existence of several post­holes. This basadi, particularly the roof, appears to have been destroyed in a fire accident, and was later enlarged and reconstructed.

Enlargement of the basadi was made by constructing a parallel wall at a distance of about one metre encompassing both the shrine and the pavilion. This second wall provided a covered circum ambulatory path for the shrines, while it enlarged the pavilion in front on all the four sides, and converted the open pavilion into a large 'navaranga'. The 'navaranga' and the porch in front of the shrine were connected by a doorway. A well moulded stone 'adhisthana', comprising of 'upana', 'Jagati', 'kumuda' (round) 'kantha' (with 'kampa') 'pattika' and 'prati', was provided for the structure, However It is not possible to have a clear idea of the 'bhitti' and the superstructure of the basadi. Many decorative pieces moulded in lime mortar, 'kudus', 'keertimukhas', burnt 'bricks of various shapes, sizes, and terracotta mouldings, stone pedestals of pillars have been discovered during excavatins. These artistic objects indicate that a well shaped and styled basadi was existing at that place during 10th century A. D.

The Mercara Copper plates9 of Avinita (469.529 A. D.) (regarded as spurious) refers to the existence of a basadi at Talkad called Vijaya Jinalaya, caused by the minister of Akalavarsha Prithvivallabha at Talavananagara. It appears that this newly excavated basadi is perhaps, the same Jinalaya mentioned in the plates.

The excavation has not provided any clue to date this basadi to the period of Avinita. However, it is possible for us to surmise, through a comparative study of this basadi with other basad is of more or less the same period existing at other parts of Gangavadi to date this structure to 7th - 8th Century A. D. The plan of the I phase of this brick structure, particularly the' garbhagriha' unit bears a striking resemblance with the plan of the Chandragupta basadi at Sravanabelagola, datable on stylistic grounds to Pallava - early Chola period (i.e., 8th-9th century A.D.)10. Three sanctums in a row, the central cella being larger than the two cellas on the sides, all the cellas having openings to a common oblong verandah or porch, closed on the two sides are features common to both the basadis, It may be noted here that the Talakad basadi being a basadi of wood and brick with a detatched pavilion in front (a feature of early temples of Tamil country) being built first, served as a model for shaping the Chandragupta basadi in granite.

As evidenced by the excavation, this basadi of wood and brick must have suffered great damage, particularly to the wooden roof. Hence, this basadi was reconstructed and also in the meantime enlarged, During the renovation, the contemporary architectural practice of providing a circumambulatory passage and an attached spacious Inavarangal was followed. So also for exterior treatment of the wall and 'adhisthana', the Chandragupta basadi at Sravanabelagola served as a model for restoration, Because, from the remains of the basadi, remnants of almost all the mouldings and decorative designs that we see in Chandragupta basadi, have been unearthed, A reconstruction of the basadi based on these remnants, would, however, provide us with an elevational pattern, precisely resembling the elevation of Chandragupta basadi. Therefore in all probability the Talakad basadi must have been reconstructed during 9th-10th century A.D.

The brick structures of the early period made way for the construction of basadis in a more permanent material like stone, which was the order of the day for the structures of the Brahmanical creed. To study and appreciate the Jaina monuments of this period one has to visit Sravanabelgola in Channarayapattana taluk of Hassan district. Here two hillocks, 'large' (Indragiri/Vindhyagiri) and 'small' (Chandragiri) provide umpteen religious edifices, of the Jains datable from 7th century A.D, to modern period. Of these two hills the 'small hill' contains monuments of earlier date than the 'large hill'.

The earliest amongst the existing structures on the 'small hill' is the Chandra Prabhanatha basadi, built facing north. The plan of this structure consists of a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi', and a 'navaranga' having a group of four central pillars. The basadi is of 'misra' type, i.e., the brick structure raised over a stone plinth, It is said to have been erected by the Ganga king Sivamara II, hence called Sivamara basadi.

The next to come on the hill is the Chandragupta basadi, a triple celled structure already cited. This basadi built in granite appears to have been modelled on the plan of the Talakad brick basadi. Three cellas arranged in a row fronted by an oblong verandah forms the core of this basadi even though it is covered in front by later structures. Of the three cellas, the two side ones have 'ekatala brahmachchanda vimanas', while the 'vimana' of the central shrine is missing. A sculpture of Parsvanatha is housed in the central shrine while the two side shrines house Padmavati and Kushmandini Yakshis. "The entire unit" according to Dr. I. K. Sarma11, "represents an early variant of a 'Trikuta' on plan with the three 'vimanas' in a parallel line fornted by a long 'mandapa' in right angles' with the main entrance at the center facing south". He further states that "the central shrine had originally, perhaps, a 'dvitala' vimana on its top consummate to its bigger dimension and the importance of the enshrined image".

Built on a plinth consisting of 'upana' 'jagati', 'tripattakumuda' 'kampa', 'pattika', the wall surface contains a row of pilasters at regular intervals. The 'bhadra' portion at the back as well as the side walls have 'kosthas' flanked by half pilasters. The 'kapota' is punctuated by 'kudas', The 'vitana' moulding below the tower has 'vyalavari' alround. There are two 'ekatala vimanas' of 'Brahmachchanda' class above corresponding to the two side shrines, and the central 'vimana' as already stated is missing. The 'stupis' of both the 'vimanas' are missing.

The next important structure to be built on Chandragiri is the Chamundaraya basadi, a gem of Jaina architecture in the pure Dravidian style, caused to be erected by Chamundaraya, the able minister of Ganga king Marasimha II in 982 A.D. The basadi was completed by the former's son Jinadeva in 995 A.D. The basadi is a rectangular structure of the 'sandhara' type built facing east. The plan consists of a 'garbhagriha', a 'pradakshinapatha', open 'sukanasi', navaranga', and a 'mukhamandapa'. Above the 'garbhagriha' is a 'dvitala vimana' of which the first 'tala' is functional as it contains a cella and a porch with an approach staircase. The second 'tala' is' only conventional. The 'sikhara' element is of 'Vishnuchchanda' type (octagonal) surmounted by a 'stupi'.

The structure is built over a neatly moulded' adhisthana'. The wall above is decorated with regularly spaced pilasters and niches. The 'kapota' is punctated with 'kudus'. The 'hara' filled with relief sculptures of Tirthankaras, Yakshas, Yakshis, Gandharvas, Apsaras, elephants etc., give an attractive elevation to the temple. The 'navaranga' has sixteen pillars and the 'sukanasi' has two. The porch in front is an addition made by the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana in place of the original porch.
The 'garbhagriha' houses the image of. Neminatha flanked by 'Chauri' bearers. This image bears Hoysala characteristic features hence, may be a later replacement. The cella on the first storey of the 'vimana' houses the standing image of Parsvanatha installed by Chamundaraya's son Jinadeva in 985 A.D.

The most beautiful' and splendid example of the Jaina architecture of the early period is the Panchakuta basadi at Kambadahalli, Mandya district. Exact date of construction of this temple is not known. However, on stylistic grounds this may be placed to X century A.D12. This basadi facing north is built in two phases. The whole structure is enclosed by a high wall having an entrance and a porch in the North. The first phase consists of three symmetrically arranged and equally sized cellas oriented towards south, east and west. Each part has a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi' opening to a common 'navaranga' consisting of 4 central pillars. The 'navaranga' has a doorway towards the north and a porch in front of it. The second phase is a 'dvikuta' of a slightly later period, built just in front of the porch of first phase. It consists of two shrines built facing each other. Each shrine has a 'garbhagriha', a 'sukanasi' a 'navaranga' of four pillars connected to a common porch in front. In between the porches of these two phases, is a 'balipitha'. This is a neatly moulded structure also sculpted on the sides.

All the shrines have the images of Tirthankaras viz., I phase, South­Adinatha, West-Neminatha, and east Santinatha. II phase, West-Adinatha and east Santinatha. All the five shrines are built in granite in pure Dravidian style, hence look identical in form and shape except for the 'sikhara' part which are of round, square and octagonal shapes. Vertical elevation of all the shrines exhibit identically treated surface. The three shrines of the I phase stand on the common' adhisthana' and two of the II phase, on another. The mouldings of these two 'adhisthanas' are nevertheless identical in treatment. They are 'upana', 'jagati', 'tripattakumuda'. 'kantha' with 'kampa' and 'pattika'.

The wall surface has tetragonal pilasters at regular intervals. Architectural niches are, however, found in the central part of the walls of each of the architectural components. A few of them also have standing Jina images. Neverthe­less the total 'appearance of the building, is highly orthodox, symmetrical and pleasing. These temples with their proportional dimensions, according to Dr. I.K, Sarma "impart an arithmetic beauty, speak of the mastery of the compositional aspects of the temple builders13". Dr. K.R. Srinivasan considers this monument as a "landmark in south Indian temple architecture"14.
Besides, these important Jaina monuments described above. There are innumerable Jain vestiges in southern Karnataka datable to the first millennium A. D. Important among them are listed below :
1. Manne, B'lore Dist.
Sule Devalaya
2. Muguru, Mysore Dist.
Sivalaya Basadi
3. Nandi, B'lore Dist.
Rock Shelters
4. Tippuru, Mandya Dist.
Rock Shelters
5. Kyatanahalli, Mandya Dist.
6. Bastipura, Mysore Dist.
Site (Now completely disappeared)
7. Doddahundi, Mysore Dist.
8. Begur, B'lore Dist
9. Asandhi, Kadur Dist.

II. MIDDLE PERIOD (HOYSALA PERIOD)The end of X century A.D. witnessed a tremendous political change in southern Karnataka. The Ganga royal family which dominated the politics of this region for over five centuries suddenly eclipsed due to the political supremacy of the Cholas on one side and the emergence of the Hoysalas on the other. The Cholas who conquered south eastern parts of Karnataka and ruled it for over one hundred years did not appear to have provided as congenial an atmoshere as extended to by the Gangas for' the promotion of Jainism. However, the Hoysalas who emerged as a strong political power offered the same prestigious position and status of Jainism as was extended to by the Gangas. Even the emergence of Srivaishnavism under the Saint Ramanujacharya as a powerful religion did not, in any way, affect the power, pomp and popularity of Jainism in the Hoysala country. The golden age of Jainism in Karnataka which commenced during the middle of X century A.D. continued upto the end of XII century. During this period the best of the religious and cultural achievements may be said to have attained by the Jains in Karnataka.

The Hoysalas practiced an art tradition which is, of course, magnificent and unique by itself. Described as a hyoridised form of Nagara and Dravida styles of architecture, the Hoysala temples contain many other elements, which, to a great extent, are the innovations of highly skilled creative artists. The Hoysala medium for construction of temples was mainly Chloritic schist or soap stone known for its fine grain. close texture, soft and malleable qualities. The softness of the stone was taken best advantage of for the exquisite display of minute and lavish decoration in each and every part of the architectural programme. Hundreds of temples allover southern Karnataka were built under the liberal patronage of Hoysalas. Two modes of architectural styles were preferred to for building temples by these artists. The first is the classical mode which is characteristic of their style and the second is the Dravidian style. The classical mode or the Hoysala style also defined as 'Vesara' style-a tasteful blend of North and South Indian varieties - consists of a star-shaped plan for the 'garbhagriha'. The other parts of the temple plan are 'sukanasi', 'navaranga', 'mukhamandapa' all built generally over a platform or 'jagati', slightly bigger in size than the temple proper, providing an open promenade alround, for circumambulation.

The 'vimana', being a mixed form of north and south Indian varieties, possesses the Nagara element in the vertical ribbings and deep chases of the wall carried right upto the top; as well as the Dravida element in the steeply stepped horizontal tiers of the tower. The 'vimana'-tower is neither curvilinear nor stepped pyramidal but looks roughly like a half folded royal parasol. Examples of this type of 'vimanas' are few compared to the second style of modified Dravidian stepped pyramidal 'vimanas' of the Hoysalas. 'Kadamba Nagara' or 'Phamsana' variety of 'vimana' towers were also built besides the two varieties described above.

The Jain temples of the Hoysala period, to suit their simple and austere religious life, were also constructed in a simple form, of course, within the general pattern of the Hoysala style. Except two living examples all the Jaina monuments of the period are conspicuous by their simplicity and clarity of style.

Despite the fact that the Jaina builders got accustomed to the new style and media brought in by the Hoysala builders, those Jaina monuments that were built on the Chandragiri (small hill) at Sravanabelgola, the nucleus of Jainism in Karnataka. are built in the orthodox Dravidian style as practiced by the Gangas. They are either granite temples or brick temples or 'misra' (mixed) type. It is difficult to give a satisfactory explanation to this puritanism of the Jains on this hill. However, this may be explained as that they were probably, slow in assimilating, the new wave of architectural movement existing around or perhaps, they found the old Dravidian style with less glamour adequate to meet their minimal religious requirements. Moreover strict adherence to austerity and restraint are the first and foremost principles of a true Jain to achieve the goal of salvation. Probably this temperament of the Jains played a major role in the design and decoration of the basadis they constructed on small hill. It must be remembered that simplicity of the style, however, in no way reflects the economic stature of the patrons. Most of these basad is are constructed by Kings, Queens, wealthy and influential persons, some of whom were even related to the ruling royal family and placed highly in the official and social circles. Gangaraja, the celebrated general, King Vishnuvardhana, and others, Queen Santaladevi, ministers and wealthy merchants have caused basadis to be built here. Yet they are simple Dravidian structures with no superior architectural elegance and the rich Hoysala style has the least impact on these structures.

While this was the case with the monuments on Chandragiri, in others places the impact of Hoysala art was rather less. However, personal predilections and taste of the patrons also played a deciding role in the selection of architectural pattern of the temple. This resulted in the construction of a few basad is in the ornate style of the Hoysalas. The Jaina architects also started gradually absorbing the Hoysala elements into their structures. Soap stone which was used hither to by the Jains for carving sculptures also became the media for constructing walls, carving pillars, doorways and 'bhuvanesvaris'. The stellate plan, in contrast to Dravidian plan was also brought in occasionally.

Now coming to some of the general characteristic features of the Jain basadis of the Hoysala period we can say that the principal components of the plan of these structures, whether built in pure Dravidian style, or Hoysala style,' apparently contains a 'garbhagriha' a 'Sukanasi', (open or closed) a 'navaranga' and a 'mukhamandapa'. All these temples are 'nirandhara' in character excepting one solitary example (Kattale basadi on Chandragiri).The plan of the basadis of the Hoysala period (excepting those built on the Chandragiri in Dravidian style) may by classified broadly into the following three categories:
Basadis whose walls are laid in straight lines without offsets
Basadis whose walls have graduated projections
Basadis whose 'vimanas' have stellate plans.

The exterior walls of these structures of the period are usually simple in contrast to the rich sculptural and decorative treatment of the Brahmanical temples. They usually possess the simple decoration of pilasters, sham niches, with turrets above, a sloped 'kapota', parapet and 'vimana'-tower. The 'vimana'-tower occurs in rare cases. However, they are built in Dravidian or Hoysala styles depending upon the structure on which it is supported.

The pillars of the Jain temples of the period, are no doubt, lathe turned and highly polished in the typical Hoysala fashion and medium. Excepting the varieties of mouldings, (vertical or horizontal) the bell shape in the centre and lustrous polish, nothing aesthetically significant is found on them.

The domed ceilings or the 'bhuvanesvaris' or the Jain basad is are of no less inferior to those found in the Brahmanical temples of the period, in design, decoration and size. Here one can see a vivid display of architectural, decorative designs and puranic frieges of the Jains vividly recorded.

The doorways of the basadis are also equally ornate in their delineation. Figures of Yaksha and Yakshi, Manmatha at Rati appear on the door jambs. The figures of Ganga and Yamuna are generally absent. 'Dwarapalakas' are often found here. The lintel at its 'Ialatabimba' usually contains the figure of a seated Jina or god Indra.

As the worship of Yakshas and Yakshis was the trend of the day amongst the Digambara Jains, each and every basadi was adorned with the loose sculptures of respective Yaksha and Yakshi of the Jina housed in the 'garbhagriha'. They are placed either in the' sukanasi' or in the navaranga'.
Every basadi was also provided with a 'Manastambha', a counterpart of the 'Dhwajastamba' of the Brahmanical temples. 'Manastambha' is a lofty pillar firmly fixed to the ground through a masonry, moulded platform. The monolithic shaft supports a capital, a divine figure or a jina, housed normally inside a small masonry pavilion with a turret above.

Some of the important places in Southern Karnataka where good Jain basadis can be seen are Sravanabelgola, Jinanathapura, Halebeedu, Humcha, Chikkahanasoga, Nitturu Arasikere and other places. Besides these places listed above there are also a number of places in the region where Jaina basadis are still extant. Many of them are either in disrepair or have been renovated during later times thus losing theit original shape.

SRAVANABELGOLA : The largest concentration of Jaina basadis at one place in Karnataka is to be seen here, where nearly one hundred monuments of various sizes and shapes are existing at present situated on the two hills and in the township as well. Among them some are Ganga, some are Hoysala and some, Vijayanagar in time. However, architectural activity at this place on the maximum scale may be said to have taken place during Ganga and Hoysala periods.
Of the basadis at Sravanabelgola township the Bhandari basadi, Akkana basadi and Nagara Jinalaya deserve special attention here. Bhandari basadi or 'Chaturvimsati Tirthankara basadi' is a large structure built facing North contains on plan an oblong 'garbhagriha'; a similar 'sukanasi', 'navaranga', mukhamandapa' and a porch all enclosed by a 'prakara' wall. This basadi is so named because it was got constructed by Hulla, the Bhandari (royal treasurer) of Hoysala Narasimha I in 1159 A. D. The king who visited this basadi named it as 'Bhavya Chudamani basadi' and granted the village Savaneru (Sravaneri) for its upkeep. The 'garbhagriha' contains the images of all the 24 Tirthankaras, each 3' in height, all placed on a common oblong pedestal. There are three doorways provided for the' garbhagriha' in front to have a clear look of all the images. The central doorway contains the usual delicate and crisp carvings of the Hoysala workmanship. The interspaces of the doorways are provided with 'jalandhras'. The central part of the 'navaranga' floor contains a huge monolithic slab of 10 feet sides. Similar slabs are also found in front of the structure a good example to the tremendous transportation capacity of the Hoysala builders.

The only temple in Sravanabelgola to be built in the classical non-ornate Hoysala idiom is the Akkana basadi, so named as it was constructed by a staunch Jaina lady Achiyakka wife of Chandra Mouli, a saiva Brah­min, a 'Sandhi vigrahi', and a min­ister of Ballala II, in the year 1182 A.D. as evidenced by two inscriptions there 15. The temple is built out of dark blue schist on a stellate plan. The plan consists of a 'jagati', a 'garbha­griha', a' sukanasi', a 'navaranga' and a 'mukhamandapa'.

The garbhagriha houses the standing image of Parsvanatha of about 5" in height. The' sukanasi' has the seated images of Dharanendra Yaksha and Padmavathi Yakshi. The 'nava­ranga' has four beau­tifully carved 'bell' moulded pillars and also 'bhuva-nesvaris' with delicate carvings. The outer walls are non-ornate, hence appear very simple. Plinth having neatly cut mouldings, thin pilasters and occasional 'stambha panjaras' of the walls, the 'kapota', the 'prastara', elegantly shaped pyramidal 'vimana'-tower with a 'sukanasa' projection in front, are all built in conformity with the Hoysala style. The carvings are still unfinished.

The other Jaina temple of the Hoysala period here is the Nagara Jinalaya built in 1199 A. D. by 'Pattanaswamy' Nagadeva. 'Sri Nilaya' is the other name of this basadi. As the merchants of the town ('nagaras') gave many grants to this basadi it came to be known as 'Nagara Jinalaya'. The plan consists of a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi' and 'navaranga'. The 'garbhagriha' houses the standing image of Adinatha (21/2' in height). The 'navaranga' has the image of standing Brahmadeva. He holds a fruit in the left hand and a whip in the right. The pedestal has the carving of a horse.
Small hill or Chikka betta in Sravanabelgola during the Xl and XIII centuries was a beehive of Jaina religious activities. Gangaraja, Santaladevi, and other rich and liberal people built six basadis on this hill. However all these monuments, as noticed earlier, are built out of granite and are in Dra"vidian style. They are 1. P arsvanatha basadi, 2. Kattale basadi, 3. Sasana basadi, 4. Savatigandhavarana basadi, 5. Teriha basadi, 6. Santisvara basadi.

PARSVANATHA BASADI : This being one of the two tallest structures of Sravanabelgola, houses the standing image of Parsvanatha of 17' in height. It has a seven hooded serpent above. This image carved out of a single block of schist is next only to the colossus of Gommata in height at Sravanbelgola. Not only this sculpture of Parsvanatha is colossal but it is also beautiful with delicate and tasteful decorations of the hooded 'serpent, sculptured pedestal where mythologically important reliefs are carved.

The temple occupies an area of 69 X 20 feet and on plan consists of a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi', navaranga' and a porch. Except for the neatly moulded plinth and sloped 'kapota' aesthetically there is nothing noteworthy in the struc­ture. The exact date of c:mstruction of this temple is not known. However,it is datable to the beginning of 12th century A.D. on the basis of an inscription on a pillar in the temple.

In front of this basadi is a neatly executed 'Manastambha' erected by Puttayya in 17th century. This supports a pillared pavilion with a turret above. The total height of this' stambha' is 65'.6".

KATTALE BASADI : The biggest of the basadis on the small hill. It measures 120 x 40 feet. 'garbhagriha', 'pradakshinapatha' (a strange phenomenon of this temple) an open 'sukanasi', a 'navaranga' of 16 pillars, a large 'rangpmandapa' (a hypostyle hall built adjoining the front of Chandragupta basadi of Ganga times) are the components of the plan of this structure, The 'garbhagriha' houses the seated image of Adinatha flanked by male 'chauri' bearers. A label inscription on the pedestal of this image records that Pochavve, mother of Gangaraja caused this basadi to be built here. A large stone screen containing many interesting incidents of Jaina mythology, is found placed separating the 'rangamandapa' of this basadi and the adjoining Chandragupta basadi.

SASANA BASADI : A structure of misra type i.e., a neatly plastered brick and mortar structure on a well moulded stone plinth. Its plan has a 'garbhagriha', open 'sukanasi', a 'navaranga', and a 'mukhamandapa'. The 'garbhagriha' houses the image of Adinatha of 5' high, 'sukanasi' houses the images of Yaksha Gomukha and Yakshi Chakresvari. The wall decoration on the exterior consists of closely spaced pilasters, 'kapota', 'hara' housing Jaina figures. Gangaraja, the able general of king Vishnuvardhana built this basadi 'Indrakulagriha' and the king granted a village for its upkeep. The basadi has derived its present name becasue of the presence of a large stone inscription of 1118 A.D. in front which states that this structure was built by the mother and wife of Gangaraja in 1118 A.D. The record was engraved ~ by Vardhamanachari alias Gangachari.

SAVATIGANDHAVARANA BASADI : King Vishnuvardhana's chief queen Santaladevi, who had the distinctive epithet 'Savatigandhavarini' ( a rutting elephant to the co­wives) caused a basadi to be built here and enshrined Santinatha (3' 4 ') seated on a lion throne in the year 1123 A.D. Though built by the chief queen of the most powerful Hoysala monarch, architecturally and artistically this basadi has an average quality workmanship. 'Garbhagriha', 'sukanasi', 'navaranga' are the con­stituents of the plan. In the 'sukanasi' are the figures of Sarvahana and Ambika. The 'navaranga' pillars are ordinary and hardly possess the Hoysala elegance. There is also a simple pyramidal 'vimana' -tower to the temple, repaired subsequently.

TERINA BASADI : This has got its name because of the so called 'car-like' masonry stone platform or 'balipitha' in front of it. The plan contains a 'garbhagriha', a 'sukanasi' and a 'navaranga'. The 'garbhagriha' has the image of Bahubali of 5 feet high. The' car' in front of the basadi is called 'mandara'. Two classes of 'mandaras' are known in Jaina tradition viz., 'Nandisvara' and 'Meru'. This "car' belongs to the 'Meru' classHi.It contains the relievos of 52 Jinas alround. This was got carved by Machikabbe and Santikabbe mothers of Hoysala setty and Nemisetty respectively in the year 1117 A.D. The two sons named were the royal merchants of King Vishnuvardhana.

SANTISVARA BASADI : Built probably in 1117 A.D. by Hiri (elder) Echimayya son of Bammanna the elder brother of Gangaraja. Hiri Echimayya was also responsible for constructing the Aregal basadi at Jinanathapura. 'Garbhagriha' open 'sukanasi', a 'navaranga' of 10 pillars, a 'mukhamandapa' are on the plan of this brick basadi. Architecturally this basadi is insignificant. It has the standing image of Santinatha (5' .2" high) which is interesting. The pedestal of the image has the relief of Indra and Sachi, his consort, on their way to consecrate the Tirthankara. Two attendant images of a later period are also found on the two sides. The 'sukanasi' has the usual images of Sarvahana Yaksha and Ambika Yakshi. The Dravidian tower of brick and mortar has lost its original features.

JINANATHAPURA : This village is situated adjacent to Sravanbelgola, north of Chikkabetta. Gangaraja, General of Vishnuvardhana is said to have founded this village in the beginning of XII century A.D. There are two basadis in this village. The first one is the Parsvanatha basadi or Aregal basadi caused to be constructed by Echa, elder brother of Gangaraja, in 1135 A.D. This is a very ordinary temple of the Hoysala style having a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi' and a 'navaranga'. The original image in the 'garbhagriha' is missing. Instead a Parsvanatha image was installed there in 1889 by one Bahubalayya. The temple also contains the loose sculptures of 24 Tirthankaras, Dharanendra, Padmavati, Panchaparamesthis, Navadevatas and Nandi brought from elsewhere.

SANTINATHA BASADI : This basadi situated to the west of the village is the main attraction of this place. This was cqused to be built by 'Vasudaikabandhava' Rechana, a minister of Ballala II in about 1200 A. D. This basadi is, perhaps, the most ornate basadis built in the classical Hoysala ornate style. Excepting the 'vimana'-tower all other components of this temple are preserved. The 'jagati', 'garbhagriha' of stellate plan, 'sukanasi', 'navaranga' are the components of this temple. The wall surface, though basically, rectangular contains many inde~tations. Regular decorations of pilasters, niches with turreted canopies, wall sculptures of average 3' height, meandering creeper scrolls running vertically in the interspaces of closely spaced pilasters are excellently imagined and executed. The subject matter of these figure sculptures, sparing the Tirthankaras, are dancers-male and female, in different poses, Gods and Goddesses, Yakshas and Yakshis, attendants, 'chauri' bearers. All these sculptures and decorative designs_are so beautifully and delicately carved that we find few parallels in the entire gamut of Hoysala sculptures.

In the design and decoration of the interiors also a similar degree of excellence is maintained. The lathe turned pillars of the 'navaranga', the domed ceilings, the wall niches and their turrets are all of superb quality workmanship. The 'garbhagriha' houses the standing image of Santinatha.

HALEBEEDU : Next group of Jaina monuments, built under the Hoysalas can be seen at Dorasamudra or Halebeedu, their capital seat. Here are three basad is built in a row towards the south of the Hoysalesvara temple. These basadis, almost identical in plan and surface treatment, are of Parsvanatha (1133 A. D.), Santinatha (1196 A. D.) and Adinatha (about the same period). The Parsvanatha basadi was constructed by Boppa son of Gangaraja, in 1133 A. D. In the same year son Narasimha was born to Vishnuvardhana. Hence, the king named this basadi as 'Vijaya Parsva'. The plan consists of a 'garbhagriha', 'sukanasi' and 'navaranga'. The 'garbhagriha' houses a tall image of Parsvanatha (14 feet high) with a hooded serpant above his head. The wall surface is treated in a very simple way. The walls are plain with thin pilasters at regular intervals and are devoid of any other decorations. The pillars in the 'navaranga are excellently chiselled and polished. The two other basadis are almost identical to this basadi with minor variations.
HUMCHA : A small town in the Hosanagara taluk of Shimogga district. The other names of this place are, Pombuchcha, Patti-Pombuchcha, Hombuja etc. From the beginning of 8th century A. D. to 16fh century, this place was an active Jaina pilgrim centre. This was also the capital seat of the Santaras of Santalige-1000 province. There are many basad is here found in different stages of preservation. The earliest among them is datable to C 850 A. D. called Paliyakkana basadi, which no longer exists. The remains of Parsvanatha and Hale-basadis are still to be seen. Panchakuta basadi the largest among the basadis here was built in 1077 by Chattaladevi. This basadi is referred to in inscriptions as 'Urdhvitilaka'. In front of this structure is a tall ornate 'manastambha'. Five 'garbhagrihas', built on a common plinth arranged in a row to have a common 'navaranga' and 'mukhamandapa'. The original sculptures of Neminatha, Santinatha and Parsvanatha only are remaining in the 'garbhagrihas'. The basadi has undergone much repairs.
CHIKKA HANASOGE : This place was an important Jaina settlement since the time of the Gangas. After the Gangas, the Chengalvas patronised Jainism here. Adinatha basadi of this place, said to have been installed by Sri Rama was reconstructed by Vira Rajendra Nanni Chengalva Rajendra Chola, a feudatory of the Cholas in XI century A. D. This basadi is a 'Trikutachala' repaired and reconstructed in recent years. The structure is of granite. However, the ornate door frames and the sculptures there in are made out of chloritic schist. The three 'garbhagrihas' house Adinatha, Santinatha and Neminatha. All the 'garbhagrihas' have 'sukanasis' which open to a 'navaranga'. The superstructures on these 'garbhagrihas' are completely lost.

NITTURU : A town in Gubbi tal uk of Tumkur district has an ornate Santisvara basadi of the Hoysala period (c. 12th Century A. D.) .'Garbhagriha" 'sukanasi', 'navaranga' and 'mukhamandapa' are found in this temple. The treatment of the exterior is quite ornate having a moulded 'adhisthana', pilastered wall, niches with turrents, and other floral patterns. The design of the pillars of the 'navaranga' are varied and attractive. The 'bhuvanesvaris' are deep and contain notable decorations. The 'garbhagriha' houses the image of Santinatha.

ARASIKERE : Sahasrakuta Jinalaya of this town is a beautiful Jaina basadi of soap stone built by Dandanayaka Rechimayya, a general of Hoysala king Ballala II in the year 1220 A.D. The sculptor who supervised the work was Namojal7. The plan of the basadi consists of a large 'garbhagriha' with 4 pillars, a 'sukanasi' with three doorways opening to the three bays of the 'navaranga', a 'navaranga', and a 'mukhamandapa'. The 'navaranga' is the most attractive part of the entire scheme. The four central pillars and the nine 'bhuvanesvaris' are of typical Hoysala workmanship. Particularly noteworthy is the central 'bhuvanesvari' which is in the form of a huge inverted lotus flower. The other' bhuvanesvaris' have, besides the usual decorations, unidentified narrative friezes. The 'garbhagriha' in the centre has a 'Sahastrakuta Jina bimba' containing 1008 tiny representations of Jinas carved on a monolithic conventional architectural model. This 'bimba' is inscribed 18 and records that it was installed by Recharasa in 1220 A.D. eminent councillor of Kalachuri dynasty, taking refuge under Ballala II.
The basadi has undergone much repairs. Most parts of the external wall surface is rebuilt. The tower of the basadi is missing.

III-LATER PERIOD (VIJAYANAGAR AND LATER PERIODS)Jainism which enjoyed a highly respectable status under the liberal patron­age of the Hoysalas suffered a set back during the beginning of the Vijayanagara rule. This was apparently due to the sudden emergence of Veerasaivism on the one side and Sri Vaishnavism on the other, which wielded considerable influence on the ruling families of Vijayanagar. However, the cosmopolitan outlook of some of the Vijayanagar rulers helped to maintain religious hormony in the empire sometimes, through personal interference of the kings, to settle the religious conflicts. Inspite of the religious vicissitudes that the Jains experienced, there was no dearth for their creative productions in the field of fine arts. Jaina received support and patronage of people and rulers alike, many new basad is were constructed, many got repaired and received liberal grants. Thus there seems to have been no threat for the peaceful co-existence of this religion under the Vijayanagar kings in southern Karnataka.

There are several inscriptional references for the construction of new Jaina basadis in this region. Besides these the construction of many more basadis have gone unrecorded or unnoticed. The Vijayanagar feudatories like Kongalvas, Changalvas, Gerusoppe rulers, the various mahaprabhus, nayakas, Wodeyars etc., also patronised Jainism liberally, even after the collapse of the central power at Hampi.

Now coming to the study of the Jaina basadis of the Vijayanagar period, it is to be mentioned again here that the general style of architecture of the basadis was in no way dissimilar to the architectural style of the Brahmanical creed. For the understanding of the configuration of the typical Jaina basadis of Vijayanagar period, we may take the plan of the existing Ganagitti Jinalaya at Kamalapura near Hampi. It consists of a 'garbhagriha', a 'sukanasi', a '.angamandapa', a second 'rangamandapa' and a 'mukhamandapa' all arranged on one axis. The second 'rangamandapa' consists of three doorways, on its three sides. Of them one leads to a 'garbhagriha' on one side and the other two open to the porches. Similarly planned basad is are found at Anegondi and Hampi, thus indicating the fancy of the builders and the people for this type of basadis. All these basadis have a pyramidal 'phamsana' veriety of 'vimana' -towers.
However, this type was not suitable for basadis in coastal Karnataka. Due to the heavy rainfall that this region received annually, the structures were built to withstand the torrential rains. Hence over the regular strong frame work and ceiling of the structure, another storey, generally not funtional, having a lesser height was built, often over a wooden frame work. This was covered by a tiled roof or metal sheets or overlapping stone slabs. Good examples of this are found almost all over south Canara district. In the plan of the structure generally a 'garbhagriha', a 'sukanasi', a 'navaranga', a colonnaded verandah alround serving as a 'pradakshina patha' as well as a porch to prevent the rain from lashing the structure.

Of the Jaina monuments the Ganagitti Jinalaya is perhaps the most complete among the Jaina basadis of the capital. The plan of the structure has already been described. This was constructed in the year 1385 by Iruga, minister of Bukka II, in the reign of Harihara II. The inscription mentions this basadi as 'Kunthu Jinalaya'. The front doorway has a small seated Jina under triple umbrella, is the 'lalata bimba'. Also the brick and mortar parapet in front has similar mutilated stucco Jinas. Rest of the structure is devoid of any decorative carvings.
During the Vijayanagar period, Sravanabelgola, also received royal atten­tion. The Mangayi basadi of C. 1325 A. D. constructed by a lady of that name consists of a 'garbhagriha' a 'sukanasi' and a 'navaranga'. The 'navaranga' has the standing image of Parsvanatha donated by Bhimadevi, queen of Devaraya I (1406­22 A. D.) and a lay disciple of Panditacharya. The monuments of Sravanabelgola of this period on the large hill are Chauvisa Tirthankara basadi (1648 A. D.), Odegal basadi (14th Century A. D.), Chennanna basadi (C.1667 A. D.), Siddhara basadi (C.17-18th Century), Wodeyar mandapa (1634 A. D.) etc.

The best and well preserved Jaina monuments of this period are located in the South Canara district, where a number of beautiful and aesthetically superior and architecturally significant basadis, monolithic Bahubali statues and 'Manastambhas' are available in good numbers. Jainism in this region of Karnataka has a remote antiquity. However. Jainism became a dominant religion only during the late Hoysala and Vijayanagar periods. Popularity and domination of the Vaishnava and Veerasaiva creeds in the Deccan plateau was perhaps, responsible for the migration of JaiDs from the table land to this coastal plains, which place, perhaps, they found more suitable to pursue their religious life without the interference of other dominant religious sects.

Amongst the important Jaina structures of South Canara the Tribhuvana Chudamani basadi at Mudabidre, Chaumukha basadi at Karkala, Santisvara basadi at Venur etc., deserve special attention.

MUDABIDRE : Tribhuvana Chudamani basadi at Mudabidre is the largest of the Jaina basad is of South Canara district. It was built in 1429-30 by the emperor Devaraya II (1446-67). Built inside a double enclosure, this structure has a 'garbhagriha' and three'rangamandapas'. all arranged on the same axis. The halls are named Tirthankaramandapa. Gaddiga mandapa and Chitramandapa. There is also a detatched pavilion in front of the basadi called Bhairadevi mandapa. This was built in the year 1451-52 during the reign of king Devaraya by Gopanna Odeyar.

The interior of the halls of these 'mandapas' contain good number of pillars which are known for their exquisite carvings and versatality of decorative designs. Each pillar in design and decoration, is different from the other and no two pillars appear the same in decoration. There are also friezes of sculptures running alround, identified as scenes from the Jaina Puranas.
KARKALA : Situated about fifteen Kms. from Mudabidre this place is known for its tall monolithic statue of Bahuball, and few Jaina basadis. The Chaumukh or Chaturmukh basadi built in 1587 A.D. is an architecturally interesting structure. The square sanctum has four doorways opening to four directions, and surrounded by a pillared verandah with projecting porches on all the four sides. Each of the doorways of the 'garbhagriha' opens to a row of three Jinas viz., Aranatha, Mallinatha and Munisuvrata the 18th, 19th, and 20th Tirthankaras respectively. All the four sets of idols are carved in blackstone and are identical in size and carvings. The roof of the sanctum is flat, formed of stone slabs the joints of which are covered by stone ribs. The verandah has a sloped roof alround formed of overlapping stone slabs.

VENUR : This place is situated about 20 Kms. from Mudabidre where a few jaina basad is important for their structural specialities are built. Santisvara basadi here, dated 1489 A. D. is a temple built completely out of stone, having a second storey, smaller in size, containing a cella, housing the image of a Jina. This method of building functional cellas over the' garbhagriha' is an age-old practice of Jains in Karnataka as evidenced by the Meguti temple at Aihole and Chavundaraya basadi at Sravanabelgola. This Santisvara basadi also has a beautiful, 'manastambha' in front.

BHATKAL : The Chandranathesvara basadi here is a structure noteworthy for its plan and elevation. The temple faces east. It consists of two structural blocks, eastern and western, both connected by a small porch. The western block has the shrine and two halls built parallelly across the axis of the temple. The halls are provided with perforated screens. This block also has an upper storey covered by a pyramidal roof formed of overlapping stone slabs.

The eastern block which is constructed like a 'dwaramandapa' for the temple, contains in the middle a broad gateway. Built on a moulded stone plinth, it has the wall surface relieved with engaged pillars to support the huge stone beams of the roof. The flat roof with sloped sides is formed of overlapping slabs. There is also a rectangular storey for this block, which also has engaged pillars at regular intervals supporting architraves. The interspaces of the engaged pillars are filled by a wall of laterite bricks. The upper storey is covered by a flat roof of stone slabs with rib-stones covering the joints, and a sloped 'kapota' alround. Perhaps, this is one of the attempts of the architects of this region to provide a suitable 'dwaramandapa' on the lines of the Dravidian 'gopura', which not only suits the surrounding architectural pattern, but also can withstand the torrential rains of the region.

'MANASTAMBHAS'To the class of Jaina monuments of southern Karnataka may be added the colossal 'manastambhas' (huge masonry columns) that are erected in front of the Jaina basadis. They are the counterparts of the Hindu 'Dhvajastambhas' in front of temples like 'Garuda Kambha' and 'Nandi Kambha'. The 'manastambhas' generally consist of three parts viz., a moulded platform, to suit the size of the pillar, monolithic shaft, and the capital or 'Makuta', the crowning member. The platform is masonry in nature, moulded with attractive forms and also sometimes decorated with relievos. The shaft is made of a single stone and designed suitably. The height of the shaft varies from place to place. The shaft carries the capital, abacus and the crowning member. Here the skill and imagination of the artist really makes the difference. Starting from ordinary capital and abacus type to most complicated and ornate crowning members are found carved here. From an ordinary seated sculpture to turreted 'mandapas' with delicate carvings have been found placed on these 'manastambhas'. Four Jinas facing four directions called 'Chaumukha Jinas', are generally placed in these pavilions. Yakshas may sometimes replace the Jinas, but Yakshis are never placed here.

The best specimens of 'manastambhas' considered as frieaks of architectural skill and taste of the Jaina artists can be seen at Sravanabelgola, Kambadahalli, Halebeedu, Humcha, Hiriyangadi, Karkala, Mudabidre, Mulki and other places in southern Karnataka.

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