Helmuth Von Glasnapp
As is well known and is accepted by all the historians, Jainism had already been established as an important religion in various provinces of
Kalkacharya, another Jaina monk, is said to have visited
Jaina art and architecture
The Jainas have been amongst the foremost in contributing to the field of art and architecture since the early days. The images of Tirthankara Rishabha deva and the figures of standing or seated nude yogins found inscribed on some terracotta seats are ample proof of the same. The relics of the prehistoric
Gupta period (4th to 7th C A.D.) is said to be the golden period of ancient indian culture. Harigupta, Siddhasana, Harisena, Ravikirti, Pujyapada, Patrakesari, Udyotanasuri and other famous Jain acharyas existed in this period and they actively helped in spreading the message of Mahavira all over
During the Chandela dynasty, Khajuraho, Devagarh, Mahoba, Madanapur, Chanderi, Ahar, Papora and
The inscriptional history of Jainism in
Andhrapradesha has been a stronghold centre of Jainism. Acharya Kundakunda (1st C A.D.), the spiritual leader of the time hailed from village Kondakunda, situated on the border of Andhra Pradesh. King Vishnuvardhana of Chalukyas, Akalavarsa, Amoghavarsa and Krashnaraja of Rashtrakutas, Bhima, Ganga Vijayaditya, Durgaraj etc. of Vengis, Tailapa, Vikramaditya of Badami Chalukyas, some kings of Velanatichoda period patronised Jainism by way of constructing temples, Vasadis and Vidyapeethas. Some of them, afterwards, were occupied by Virasaivaitas and Lingayatas, who have been great destroyers of Jaina monuments and the community as well.
Jainism in Karnakata goes back to at least Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya, who migrated to south via
Jainism entered Tamilnadu most probably from Kalinga in around 4th C B.C. Visakhacharya proceeded to Chola and Pandya countries with the entire Munisangha. It can be supported by the caverns containing beds carved out in the rock found in hills and mountains around the Pudukottai, Madura and Tinnevelly and rock-out sculptures and inscriptions in the hills of the north Arcot district which indicate the existence of Jainism in Tamilnadu in the 3rd C B.C. Kanchi was one of the important seats of learning in south India. It was the capital of Pallavas, who were mostly Jains in early centuries. The inscriptions of Jinakanchi refer to some prominent. Jainacharyas of the city, like Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Jinachandra, Pujyapada, Akalanka, Anantavirya, Bhavanand, Mallisena etc. The north and south Arcot regions are very rich from the standpoint of Jaina architecture. Sittanavasal, Narttamalai, Tenimalai, Bommanmalai, Malamala and Samanar Kudagu had been the Jaina centre since last two thousand years. Most of these places have rich paintings and sculptures of Sittanvasala tradition which may be compared with
Madura was the capital of Pandyas who showed very favourable attitude towards Jainism. Its neighbouring hills, like Annaimalai, Nagamalai, Muttupatti, Eruvadi, etc. are very rich from Jaina sculptural and painting stand-point. Various Jaina epics were written in this period by prominent Jainacharyas like Pujyapada, Vajranandi, Aryanand and Patrakesari. Afterwards, jainism was patronised by Kadamba kings . Thus, the survey of Jainism in south
Their devotees committed heavy atrocities on Jaina society, temples, sculptures and vasadis.The massacres went on and Jaina centres were converted into Saiva or Vaisanava temples. Jaina images and stupas have been found from many excavations in that region and these are preserved in museums at
dialogue and understanding which can be easily perceived through the extensive and perennial literature.