Jul 7, 2010

Rishabha in Indus Valley and Puranik Literature

-Shri Balbhadra Jain

Thus we find the description about Lord Rishabh in Vedas besides it in Shrimad Bhagwat Markendeya Puran, Karma Puran, Vayu Puran, Agni Puran, Brahmand Puran, Warah Puran, Vishnu Puran and Skand Puran etc. there are Prayers to Lord Rishabh and there is a vide description of incidents of his life with his father-mother and sons etc.

In the third Skandh Puran of Shrimad Bhagwat while describing about Supreme beings it is pointed out that Lord Rishabh was born from the wife's womb of Raja Nabhi whose name was Marudevi. He was eighth amongst the supreme beings. In this connection they showed such a path to paramhans which was to be followed by all the persons living in Ashrams. In the Shanti Parva of Mahabharat there is mention about Lord Rishabh. It is said that the result of sixty eight tirthas equals only to the remembering the name of Lord Rishabh (Adinath).

Thus by following the Poranik Literature the historical as well as great personality of Rishabhdeo as a founder of jainism is revealed.

On this basis the prior history and priority to Vedic religion is established. Dr. Vishudhanand Pathak and Pandit Jaishankar Mishra support this fact and they have written that :-
"The learned persons have expressed that this Religion is Pragaitihasik and Pravedic i.e. it prevailed before. The Yogi idol found in Sindha Valley and certain Mantras of Rigveda mention the names of Rishabhdeo and Aristhnemi which are main basis of these ideas. The story of Lord Rishabh in Bhagwat and Vishnu Puran also clearifies the oldness (Prachinta) of Jain religion". (Bhartiya Itihas and Sanskrati -pages 199-200).

In the same manner the Jainacharya Vidyanandji has given proof in his thesis "Mohan-jo-daro and Jain Parampra" (page 12) which is to be noted. He has given proofs and on its basis he has proved and written that :-
"That oldness of Jainism is discussionsless, This fact of its oldness can be realised by us by two means. Puratatva (Archioloical and Historical). It is difficult to decide as to where is the beginning of Jain Architect. Because in digging at Mohanjodaro some such things are found which has pushed the oldness of Jainism even more five thousand years ago atleast.

In the same way during digging in Harappa one naked body of human is found. The naked position is Kayotsarga shape. T.N. Ramchandran who was Central Chief Director of Archioloical Department of that time, has examined it cautiously. In his theis book "Harappa and Jainism" (at page 4) has proved that the idol is of Rishabhdeo Lord Rishabh and written that :-
"The idol carved in Kayotsarga Mudra in Harappa is fully a Jain idol. On its face the simplicity or grace appears from distance.

Dr. Kashiprasad Jayaswal has also recognised it to be the Idol of Tirthankar (Lord) Mahavir found in India. There is resemblance in the naked idol of Harappa and this Jain idol. Their superiority is Yog Mudra (The Indus valley civilisation and Rishabhdeo V.G. Nair Page-1).
Babu Kamtaprasad Jain in his book "Mahavir and other Tirthankars" (Page-23) has written that "In one plate no. 10 received from Harappa there is carved one body of man's idol. It is also naked and in Kayotsarga Mudra. It resembles totally with the Jain idol at Bankhipur. It belongs to Moryan period.

The culture of Harappa has been recognised by the learned persons belonging to the period in between 2000 years and 3000 years before Christ. It clarifies that the Tirthankars existence was 4000-5000 years ago, also and their idols were being worshipped. On all this basis many a learned personalities have agreed that the culture of Sindhu Ghati was related to Jain Culture. Shri P.P. Deshmukh in his book Indus Civiliation, Riveda and Hindu Culture has written at (page no. 344) that :- "The first Tirthankar of Jains existed since Sindhu culture. The Lords of Sindhu people used to be naked, Jain people maintained that culture and they worshipped naked thirthankars". He has described about languistic constructions that :-
"The language of Sindhus people was Prakrit, Prakrit is a language of common people. There is a large languistic difference in jains and Hindus. All the old granthas of Jains are in Prakrit. Most of them are in Maghdi, while all the Hindu Granths are in Sanskrit. The use of Prakrit language also proves that Jain religion is Pragvedic (Prior to Vedas) and it relates to Sindhu Ghati (valley).
In this connection "Sindhu Ghati Me Rishabh Yug" is also to be noted which is written by Premsagar Jain. In his thesis, he has said on the basis of many a proofs and established that "whole of the Sindhu Ghati including. Mohan Jodaro or Harappa was of Rishabhdeo. His worship also prevailed.

According to Historians before coming of Vedic Aryas or Sapt Sindhu going ahead in Eastern India, Dravid Nag etc were the castes of human beings. The culture of that period is called Dravidian Culture. Dr. Heras, Prof. S. Shrikantha Shastri and like them other highest learned personalities and Articulturists have recognised that culture as an inseparatable part of Dravid and Anarya culture. Professor S. Shrikrishna Shastri has pointed having mentioned Sindhu Culture to be similar to Jain Dharma. "By their Digamber religion Yogmarg, worship of Rishabh and other different idols etc. The Sindhu culture has wonderful similarity with Jainism. Hence it is originally Anarya or at least Non-vedic. (Indian History Ek Drasthi Page-243).

Hrim and Yogi idols and Vedic literature mention about Dasyu, Asur, Nag and Vratya etc all these also remind the same culture. All these were part and parcel of Jain Culture. Imphasing this fact Major General J.C.R. Furlon F.R.S.I. has written in his book.

"Prior to Christ since unknown period some western, Nothern and Central Indians were Turani who are called Dravidians and they ruled there. Dravidians observed Shraman (Saint) religion. The Shraman Dharma was preached by Rishabhdeo Vedics have called him as the first Tirthankar of Jains. Manu has called Dravidians as Vratya, because they followed Jainism.
In a book "Orissa me Jainism" (Page no. 3) Shri Nilkanth Shastri has mentioned that Jainism is the original religion and has connected Dravidians with the Jains. He has mentioned:-
"Jainism is an original religion of the world. It was prevailing in this country even prior to the coming of Vedic religion. It is possible that it prevailed even in Pragvedic era in Dravidians. In the same manner P.C. Roychoudhari has also recognised Jainism as prevailing since very very old times. According to him after Pashan Yug (stone age) in Magadh, the agricultural age came in force in Rishabh Yug. (Jainism in Bihar page - 47).

Sculptural Evidence
In theis view of History of Jainism Kalingadhipati Samrat Kharvel got written at Udaigiri and in Hathi Gufa of Khand are very important. In that script which begins with Namo Arihantanam, Namo Savva Siddhanam, it gives a vast knowledge about Jain history. It is written in it that Mahameghvahan Kharvel had attacked Magadhraj Pushyamitra and brought back idol of Rishabhdeo. Barrister Shri Kashiprashad Jayaswal has studied it seriously and written that "It is a very important sculpture in this country amongst others in view of Jain history. It supports the scriptures of Puranas. It shows that the Royal dynesty was of 450 years before Christ. In addition to this, it proves that 100 years after Lord Mahavir, the Jainism preached by him had become Royal religion and it had found its place in Orissa (Jain Siddhant Bhaskar part 5, specially pages 26-30). It proves that even in the time of Lord Mahavir also Lord Rishabhdeo was being worshipped.

The spritual things found in the Stupa of Mathura Kankali Tila is very important. Here hundreds of Jain idols and sculptures and besides them more than hundred scripts were found. In them the oldest one Deo Stupa is to be mentioned specially. It being very very old one, it is called as a Stupa constructed by Devas. According to Articultures it was constructed 800 years before Christ approximately. (As mentioned in Rishabh Sourabh written by Dr. Ramesh Chandra Sharma "Jain Sakshya of Mathura"). Some of the learned persons think that it is as old as 3000 years from today. In addition to theis several idols of tirthankar's of second centuary to 12th centuary have also been found there. It also proves the oldness of Jainism.

On the basis of all these things Winsent A. Smith has written that :-
"The things received from Mathura in scripts throws wide light with regard to Jain traditions and submits unchallangeable proofs as regards the oldness of Jainism. And it shows that in old times also it existed in its same from. Since the beginning of Christian Era also it had firm belief in the twenty four tirthankars recognition with their identity marks. (Diagamber Jain Stup of Mathura -page 6).

The opinions of learned persons and Historians
Thus by Historical discoveries, scriptural proofs and artitactural evidences and old literatures truthful followings the oldness of Jainism with Lord Rishabhdeo becomes cristal clear like a mirror. Now all the learned personalities have realised that Jain religion is oldest of all the religions in India and it was started and pleached by Rishabhdeo. Being related in this connection the important thesis and opinions with results are being mentioned which reveal the oldness of religion.

1. It is impossible to know the beginning of Jainism. Thus it seems to be the oldest religion of India (The short studies in science of comparative religion - page 14).

2. Jainism began since the beginning of this world. In other philosophies (Jain Itihas per Lokmat) written by Mahamahoupadhyay Ram Mishra Shastri).

3. According to Jain traditions Jain Philosophy was founded by Rishabhdeo who was born several centuries ago. In this way there are sufficient proofs on their basis it can be said that prior to Christ even one thousand years ago, there were such persons who worshipped Rishabhdeo who was the first tirthankar. There is no doubt that prior to Vardhaman and Parshwanath also Jainism prevailed. In Yujurveda there is mention about three tirthankars viz. Rishabhnath, Ajeetnath and Arishthanemi. Bhagwat Puran supports this that the founder of Jainism was Rishabhnath. (In Jain philosophy-page 233).

4. There is no proof in support of proving that Parshvanath was the founder of Jainism. The Jain traditions have only one opinion that Rishabhadeo was the founder of Jainism. This opinion has truth Historically (Indian Antiquary-page 46/63 learned german Dr. Harman Jecoby).

5. When Jain and Brahmin both recognise that in this short period Rishabhdeo was the founder of Jainism. Then this recognition cannot be said to be unbelievable (Kalpsutra Intraduction).
-Stivension

6. Specially in old time in India there was tradition to accept some thing or other by change of religion and to start a new religion. Jainism is quite an independent one from Hindu religion. It is neither a branch or changed form of it. (Rishabh Sourabh-page 29).
-Prof. Maxmullar

7. Dr. Jimmer has written that Jainism is a quite independent religion from the period of its origin and it is older than Vedic religion. "Jains have not been born from Brahmins or Aryans but it is prior to Arya and very old one and reveals about North-East India's higher level generation, science etc. and the development of mankind its traditions, and reading it. (The Philosophy of India-page 217).

8. Jains call their preachers the Siddhas a tirthankars. In which is the first of all was tirthankar Rishabhdeo. There can be no doubt about their Historical basis. In Shrimad Bhagwat there are certain chapters which give description above Rishabhdeo. He was son of manuvanshi mahapati Nabhi Raja and Maharani Marudevi. His authority and victory was famous through out the world. His eldest son was Bharat out of his 100 sons. Who become famous for his religious activities which were unparalleled. He being the first one Emperor our country became famous as Bharat (Bhartiya Darshan - Seventh Edition-page 88). (By Dr. Baldeo Upadhyay).

9. The scripts and social descriptions point out that Jainism is since beginning. And it is undebateable and indistinct. Sutras are the most powerful proofs of this subject. (Ahinsa wani July 82-Page 197-198).

10. It is quite known that the tradition of Jainism is very very old. Lord Mahavir was the last Tirthankar. Twenty three Tirthankars were born prior to him. Amongst them all Lord Rishabhdeo was the first one and hence he is called as Adinath. In Jain sculptures its idol is carved in a great penancing shape. Shrimad Bhagwat also describes about Rishabhdeo in details. It compells us to think that what may be its reason. In Bhagwat there is mention that Mahayogi Bharat was oldest one out of 100 sons of Rishabh and after his name this country is called Bharatvarsha. (Jain Bharat ka Itihas Puran Patrika Prastavana page-89).

11. People have this misbelief that Parshwanath was the founder of Jainism but it was preached by Rishabhdeo. There is no scarecity of proofs in support of this. (Jain Dharma ki Prachinata-page 8).
-Vardakant Mukhopadhyay

12. While comparing Jain and Bodha religions about oldness actually Jainism is very very old. In Jainism Right Conduct has a great value for human social uplift (Jain Religion-Page 128).

13. In the world it is said that Lord Budha had preached and spread principle of Ahinsa, 2500 years ago from today. Any of the persons knowing history has no knowledge about this that prior to Budha crores of years ago not only one but several Tirthankars have established the principle of Ahinsa. The old places (areas) and scriptures on stones prove this fact that Jainism is an old one. It gave a lot to Indian culture. (Jain Religion-Page 128)

Other Tirthankars
There remains no doubt of any kind in recognising the Historical facts on the basis of above mentioned proofs and the opinions of aforesaid learned persons about Lord Rishabhdeo. Rishabhdeo was first Tirthankar of Jainism. After him 23 more Tirthankars were born cronologically. Their life history is found in details in Puranas. Besides this the idols found in Kankali Tila of Mathura and other places carved centuries ago before christian Era also prove the existence of remaining Tirthankars. (Jain Stup and other activities of Mathura-Page 24-25).

Tirthankar Neminath :
Out of these the 22nd Tirthankar Lord Neminath, who is also called as Aristhanemi has been Historically recognised by learned persons. He was cousin brother of Narayan Shrikrishna. There is also mention about Arishtha Nemi in Yujurveda etc. The Puranas also clearly express that the Rishi Named Arishtha Nemi was contemporary to Shrikrishna. There is also mention about him in Maha Bharat which is as under :- "There was one time when people did not believe in historical cxistence of Neminath but on the basis of Historical discoveries now the learned persons admit that during the period of Shrikrishna there was one great personality Neminath. Famous dictionery writer and manya learned persons Dr. Nagendranath Wasu, Mister Kava, Dr. Harisatya Bhattacharya, Dr. Prannath Vidhya Alankar and Dr. Radha Krishan etc. have agreed the historical existence of Tirthankar Neminath. Even in Rigveda, Yujurveda, Atharvaveda, Samved itself and atreya Brahman Yask Niruvat, Sarvanu, Kramanika Tika, Vedartha Dipika, Sayan Bhasya, Maha Bharat, Bhagwat, Skand Puran and Markandeya Puran etc. and the scriptures of Brahmins have mentioned about him. Not only this but Tirthankar Neminath had his impression out side India in foreign countries.

Colonal Tod has written in his book "Rajasthan" that it seems to me that in olden times there were four great learned labourious personalities. The first of which was Adinath or Rishabhdeo. The second one was Neminath. Neminath was the first Odit of the people of Skendineviya and first 'Pho' Devata of Chinese people. In addition to this Dr. Prannath Vidhyalankar in weekly edition of Times of India of 19th March 1935 had published one old "Copper Shasan script received from Kathiyawad. According to him that script "Danpatra" had a mention that Babul Khildiyan Nivuchedanajjar, Emperor born in Sumer caste who was Ruler of Revanagar (Kathiyawad). He came to this land of Yaduraj (Dwarka) and worshipped at Rewtachal (Girnar) Lord Neminath and gave donations dan in his service. On the donation-patra, the shape of that western Ruler is carved and its period is 1140 B.C. approximately. (Bhartiya Itihas Ek Drasthi - Page 45).

Tirthankar Parshwanath
The 23rd tirthankar Parshwanath was born in Banaras (Varanasi). He was son of Ugravanshi King Ashwasen and Maharani Vamadevi. When he was 30 years of age his soul attempted towards Vairagya (penancing) and while he was a prince he left his kingdom and became Digamber saint and began penance. He had hard penancing for a few days and he obtained enlighten ment (Kewalgyan). After this he went from place to place on foot and preached Jainism. In the end when he attended 100th year of age he attained Nirwan at Sammed Sikhar of Bihar State.

Rishabhnath and his idol tradition :
The litrary references also prove that the origin of Jain religion was prior to Parshwanath and its original importence goes to Rishabhdeo. Who has been called as Audinath and recognised as the first tirthankar. or Jina. This has been mentioned not only in Jain sahitya but even the literature beyond it (Jainater sahitya) also support it.

The preaching of Rishabhanath to his sons is also mentioned by Bhagwat writer in such a manner that it includes the pleasure is not to be accepted and the penance and meditation is to be accepted for ever lasting happiness. Karmakand has been critisized. If the soul becomes clean (without sin) the liberation from world is agreed and it is imphasised that all the living beings have similar souls.

It is worthy to be mentioned here that even in the literature several centuries after written the Nirwan (salvation) of Lord Mahavir and on his achieveing a lot of fame he is not recognised as the founder but Rishabhnathji is accepted as the founder with this when equality and status prevailed then as an Awatar of Hinduism Rishabhdeo was established. It also proves that Rishabhdeo was senior to Mahavirji and as a founder he had received more enlightenment.
In addition to worldly history, in vedic literature also the description of Rishabha is mentioned as a ruler who keeps his public in prosperity. (Rigveda 1.23,177)

According to Vishnu Puran that Rishabh was born as a son of Nabhi and Marudevi. He had hundred sons out of them brave Bharat was given the empire by him and he went to the forest for hard penancing. (Vishnu Puran 2.1.17.32).

It is already written in Bhagwat that he being bright and beautiful in body and looking attractive with power and bravery etc. Nabhi named his son Rishabh which means superior one. (Bhagwat 5.3.20 and 4.2). (Vayu Puran 3.1.5052)

It has been supported in Narsinha Puran.
These literary references make it clear that other tales by non Jains also accept that Rishabhnathji was chief originator and great man. The containtions in Vedic literature establish that he was famous at the time of origin of Audi Yug. According Jain traditions the time circle has been devided into six periods viz. Real happiness, happiness and pains, pains and happiness and pains and severe pains. These should be the nails of the time circle. By movement of time circle they occur at proper times. From happiness to pains is called Awasarpini degradation and from pains to happiness it is called Utsarpini or uplifting.

In Hindu scripts Rishabhnath is said to have been born in the fifth generation of the beginning of Human age by Manu and Satrupa. According to it he was born in the end of first Satyaug. Thus Jains as well as Hindus both believe that the origin of Lord Rishabha is a story of very very old period which cannot be thought of According to Jain a tradition there have been 14 Manu who for the betterment of human beings have showed path to them in different periods (Yuga).

Rishabhdeo in Budhust Literature
In Bodha Sahitya also there is mention about Rishabhdeo. He is called as "Pravar Veer" in Dhammapad. (Usbham Pravarm Veeram-422). In Manjushri Mul Kalp, he has been mentioned as Nirgranth Tirthankar and Aptdeo. In "Nyay Bindu" Chapter 3 Rishabh (Vrashabh) and Vardhaman have been mentioned as Sarvagna i.e. Kewalgyani Apt Tirthankar and called as preachers of Digambers i.e. Anushasta of Digambers. He is also remembered at page 286 of "Dharmottar Pradeep". Thus the mention about Rishabhadeo is found in olden history of Jains, Vedic and Both all the three literatures.

In Budhism also Rishabhadeo has been described with respectful words :- (Arya Manjushri Mul Sloka 390-92)

It means Nabhi was son of Prajapati and his son was Rishabhadeo, who was perfectly follower and strict vratis. Manichar was his Yaksh. He became Sidha on Himwan Parwat. His son was Bharat. In the same mannner in "Dhammapad" 422 Rishabhdeo was called Brave and superior one i.e. "Usambham Pavaram Veeram".

Jainism in Indus Valley
On the basis of Architactural evidence also the oldness of Jainism is proved. The historians and Architacturers recognised that prior to coming of Vedic Aryans, the culture prevailing in India was very prosperous and progressive. The learned persons have connected it with Shraman Sanskriti. In between 1922 to 1927 many new facts have come to light by digging in Sindhu Ghati at Harappa and Mohan-jo-daro by the Indian Articultural Department. Which proves not only the oldness of Jainism but also its Pragvedicta i.e. Prevailing before Vedic period. The sculpture which was discovered there is called the culture of Sindhu Ghati.

According to learned persons it is 5000 years old approximately. The articles of architecture found at these places show the living standard, traditions and religious belief of the Indians at that time.

Some naked Kayotsarga Mudraen have been found at Mohan-jo-daro. They belong to Jain Culture. While proving this, Late Raibahadur Prof. Ramprasad Chandra has written in his thesis that on the coins found in Sindhu Ghati some of them have carved Jain idols in only Yog Mudra also shade light on this old Yug prevailing Mudra in Sindhu Ghati. In those coins the standing yog Mudra of Devatas and it being Kayotsarga Mudra wonderfully pertains to Jains. This Mudra not being in sitting for Meditation it is in standing position of Meditation. In Audi Puran Sarg eighteen Rishabh or Vrashabh's Kayotsarga Mudra is described. In Karzaon Musium of Architecture there are four idols of Jain Rishabh carved on one stone in standing form are present. Which have been old to be of the second century A.D. This idol Mudra is shown at no. 12. In old period of Mishri Dynesty some such idols of same Mudra exist, which have hanging arms in both the sides. Though these Mishri idols or Greek Curo are often found in same Mudra but they do not have that apparance of Vairagya, which we find in standing idols of Sindhu Ghati and Kayotsarga idols of Jains. The meaning of Rishabha is Vrashabh which means an ox and it is mark of Rishabha. In support of this while proving oldness of Jainism learned Vachaspati Gerola has written :-
"That the founder of Jain Sanskriti is Jainism which is Pragetihasik religion. The oldness of Jainism is proved beyond doubt by the idols of yogis which are Dhyanastha found in Mohan-jo-daro. In Vedic Yug the tradition of vraton and Sharmans were represented by Jainism it self. Jains have special support with a view to Jain Darshan Sanskriti and art in indian history. (Bhartiya Darshan Page-33).

In the same manner, Vishambhar Sahay Premi writes in his book "Indian Culture in Himalaya" that :-
"If we think over it with pure Historical view on this question even then it is acknowledged that Jains had their part in the making of Indian culture since beginning. The marks of Jainism found in the Mudras (coins) of Mohan-jo-daro and their Yog Mudra being like that of Jain idols is the proof of this fact that Jains were not behind with any one in knowledge as well as Lalit Kala Art). (Himalaya Mein Jain Sanskriti page-47).

Architectural and Pragvedic culture
Historians and Architecturers now accept this that whenever Vedic culture was preached in India, prior to it there was a culture which was very progressive and of high level. There is no literature of Pragvedic period. But the discovery of Architecture and digging have enlightened these facts and features in the result. In 1922 and after it Indian government had digged at Mohan-jo-daro and Harappa. Mohan-jo-daro is situated in Larkana district of West Pakistan in between Sindhu River and Narnahar. Mohan-jo-daro means mound of deceased persons. Here digging took place upto water touching seven levels of ground. Harappa is a place in Montigomri District. Mohan-jo-daro is situated in the plain of Sindhu river while Harappa is situated in the Plain of River Ravi. The culutre discovered in these two places can be called as Sindhu Ghati ki Sabhyata i.e. culture of Sindhu River and Harappa.

John Marshal who is director of Architectural Department of Govt. of India has written about this culture that "Five thousand years ago in Eastern Punjab and Sindhu Pradesh before Aryans such persons lived whose culture was of very high standard and it was not lesser in any way from the contemporary culture found in Mesopotamiyan and Igypt. But surely in some respects it can be called high.

The Architecture found at these places shades light on contemporary living standard of Indians in their dressing traditious and religious belief. Though no temples have been found there but the coins found there, scriptures and metal and earthen and stone idols give us the ideas about their religion and belief.

Some of the coins found at Mohan-jo-daro in which idols of yogis are carved in Yogmudra. One of the coins is such that in which the Yogi is in standing position of Kayotsarga Mudra and is penancing shape. There is Trisul on its head and near its mouth there is one leaf. In its feet one devotee is in Namaskar position. Behind that devoter one ox is standing. There is a tree over that Vrashabh (ox) Yogi is covered by a (Ballari). Below it there are seven Yogies in Kayotsarga Mudra in Dhyan (Meditation) with their arms downwards. In each face there are leaves of those plants (Ballari).

If this appearance and its adoration etc are compared with respect to Tirthankar Rishabhdeo from the description in Jain Shastras then a great similarity seems and some interesting features come to us. Acharya Jinsen in "Audi Puran" Sarg 18 Shloka 3, 6 and 10 has given a wide description of Kayotsarga Mudra of the Lord. In Shlok no. 10 Acharya writes that his both the long arms were hanging downwards and his body was glorious by shining and was having height.
Hence it seemed that he might be shining in the form of a Kalpvraksha in the form position with two high branches. In the 12th Sargos this Shloka it is mentioned that "by gentle air the front of portions of the branches of nearby trees might be moving.

In Audipuran Sarga 17 Shloka 253 it is written that those who have worshipped feet of God and whose both the knees are attached to ground and whose eyesare wet with tears of joy. Such an Emperor Bharat in his superior crown studed with Manies and their rays washing the feet with clean water of those rays from his head when he bowed it in the feet of the Lord.

In Audi Puran Sarg 17 Shloka 218, whose Sanyam has not been shown, such Dravya lingi Munis around the Lord Rishabhadeo seemed as if suppose small Kalpa Vraschas are around a large tree of Kalpa Vraksha itself.

Similar description is also found in "Purudeo Champu of Mahakavi (great poet) Arahdas. If we keep Mohars received from Mohan-jo-daro and Audi Puran and Purudeo Champu before us and read then the description of Dhyan Mudra of Rishabhdeva then we will find such a similarity that the writers of Puranas have described those moharas. Therefore having compased those moharas and puranas the description of Mohar can be as under :-

Lord Rishabhadeo is standing in Physical abandon (Kayotsargasan) for penance. Kalpa Visksha is moving by air and its one leaf is moving near the mouth of Lord. On his face there is Trisul in the form of three Ratna Samyak Darshan.- Samyak Gyan and Samyak Charitra. Emperor Bharat is bowing in the feet of Lord with devotion and washing his feet with Joyful tears. Behind him there is mark of Rishabha. Below him seven saints are following the Lord are also in penance having Kayotsarga Mudra (Physical abandon). Four thousand kings had become saints (Muni), these seven Munies are their symbolic representation.

Possibly there can be no other critical explanation of the said Mohar (coin) except this. R.V. Prof. Ramprasad Chanda has explained it, which has complained the Historians to change their old presumptions. The intention of Prof. Chanda is as follows :-

Out of the Moharas found in Sindhu some are carved with idols of Dewas, they are not only Yogi Mudra but they also shade light in that old period on Yog which prevailed in Sindhu Ghati. In those Moharas the standing Deotas also show standing Mudra of Yog and also reveal that the Kayotsarg Mudra wonderfully relates to Jains. This Mudra not being one for penancing in sitting position but it is meditation in standing position. In Audi Puran at 18 Sarga in order to describe meditation by Rishabh his Kayotsarga Mudra is given. In Curzon musium of Architectures these are four idols of Lord Rishabha in Kayotsarga Mudra in standing position, which are declared to be of 2nd century A.D. This idol of Mathura is shown as idol no. 12. In old period idols belonging to Royal dynesties are in Mishri Architect and some of them have their arms hanging down. Though those Mishri or Greek hero idols are found in the same Mudra but they have no charm of Vairagya in them, which we find in the standing idols of Sindhu Ghati or the Kayotsarga idols of Jainies. The meaning of Rishabha is Vrashabh (ox) and Vrashabh is mark of Jin Rishabh.
Modern Review August 1932 page 155-160

These ideas of Prof. Chanda have also been supported by Prannath Vidhyalankar. He also admits that these Kayotsarga idols found in Sindhu Ghati are of Rishabhadeo. These learned persons have also read the word Jineshwar on seal no. 449. Our humble presumption is that all the idols in Sindhu Ghati are of Rishabhdeo. These learned persons have also read the word Jineshwar on seal no. 449. Our humble presumption is that all the idols in Sindhu Ghati which are in Dhyanastha Vitrag Mudra with Trisul and Dharmachakra . Tree and snake, animals etc. are all specialities of Jain Art. Specially, Kayotsargasan is used by Jain Shramans for mediation.
The Opinion of T.N. Ramachandran

These two ricks place before us the truth that we are perhaps recognisition in the Harappa statue a full fledged Jain Tirthankars in the characteristic pose of physical abandon (Kayotsarga).
The statue under description is therefore a splendid representative specimen of this thought of Jainism at perhaps its very inception.
T.N. Ramchandran
Director General Indian Archeological Department.

Sindhu culture was prosperous and uplift culutre. The Architecturers have valued the culture of Sindhu, it gives very interesting results. Dr. Radhamukund Mukarjee has written (Hindu culture third Edition P-39). In Mohar Falak no. 2 the carved idol of Deo there is only one ox. It is possible that it may be former form of Rishabha. If it is so then like remaining Religion the origin of Jainism goes upto Tamra Yugin (copper age) of culture.

Famous learned person Shri Ramdharisingh Dinkar in (In sanskriti ke char Adhyay P-39) Four Chapters of Sanskriti has written while proving this fact that "In digging at Mohan-jo-daro the proof of yog was found and the Jain religion had its first preacher Tirthankar Rishabhadeo. The tradition of Yog and Vairagya (abandon) is attached with him as it was attached with lord Shiva after passing of time. In this view it is not improper to recognise that Rishabhadeo though described in Vedas he was existing prior to Vedas.

In this reference Dr. M.L. Sharma writes in (In Bharat Mein Sanskriti and Dharm P-20) Indian Culture and Religion "The pictures carved on Mohars received from Mohan-jo-daro are of Lord Rishabhdeo. It shows that yog system prevailed in India five thousand years ago and its originator was Audi Tirthankar of Jainism Lord Rishabhdeo.

The inhabitents of Sindhu Ghati also worshipped Rishabhdeo with the other Devas.

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