Nov 26, 2007

JAIN SCRIPTURES AAGAMA GRANTHAS

BY DINESH VORA

[A] AAGAMA GRANTHAS: (Divya-dhwani scriptures)
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The Aagama means the dictum of Aapta i.e. the "DIVYA DHWANI" (divine sound or voice) of the lord teerthankara. In this case that of lord Mahavira, the twenty-fourth, and last teerthankara of the present era. Jain Scriptures, as listened, recorded, and compiled into twelve volumes by eleven chief disciples of Lord Mahavira, called Ganadharas, led by chief ganadhara Indrabhuti Gautama, are called Anga-granthas. This is the Jain canon and is called GANIPITAKA. The Ganipitaka used to be kept in the temple chest, locked, and under the
watchful eyes of authorities. This invaluable religious treasure was passed on by the Ganadharas to the subsequent heads of Sramana Jain Sangha. The Jain canon is known with different names as Ganipitaka, Aagma, Anga-granthas, Anga-pravista, Dwaadashaanga i.e. twelve limbed scripture. The sound emanating from the Kevalagnaana i.e. the ultimate true knowledge of the lord Teerthankara or the voice of the lord Teerthankara is called "DIVYA DHWANI", divine sound, or divine voice. Such divine sound was understandable and interpretable by any soul in any life form anywhere in the universe. The comprehension of the divine message depended on the physical karmic condition of that particular soul. Lord Mahavira preached in Ardha-maagadhi language. The original Anga-granthas, and subsequent Anga-baahya-granthas were written in Ardha-maagadhi language. The overall original Jain religious scriptures are grouped into following two categories:

(1) Anga-granthas, original recorded divya-dhwani, and
(2) Anga-baahya-granthas, written, and elaborated by those who were closer to Teerthankara, and/or Aagama (recorded divya-dhwani), by distance, and time. Though they are not Ganadhara authored scriptures but have found acceptance as the aagama granthas.

[A.1] ANGA-GRANTHAS: (Anga-scriptures)
The following are the twelve angs, or limbs or anga-granthas of the Aagama scriptures of Jainism.

(1) AACHAARAANGA SOOTRA:
The conduct, rules, and regulations for the life of the Saadhu.

(2) SOOTRAKRUTAANGA SOOTRA:
The Jain doctrines, descriptions, and comparisons with other contemporary creeds such as Niyativaada, Kriyaavaada, and Akriyaavaada.

(3) STHAANAANGA SOOTRA:
The definition, and description of the essential elements, tattvas of the Jainism. The other topics as Darshan (perception), Charitra (conduct), Anu (Atom), are covere full details with subcategories.

(4) SAMAVAAYAANGA SOOTRA:
The definition, and description of the tattvas (essential elements), of the Jainism. The other topics
included are grouped, and subgrouped, totaling to huge numbers.

(5) VYAAKHYAA-PRAGNAPTIANGA:
The preaching of religious knowledge of Jainism, ethics, Jain philosophy, etc. through dialogues,
examples, stories, and questions and answers.

(6) GNAATAADHARMA KATHAANGA:
The preaching of religious knowledge of Jainism, and religious tales narrated by Gnaatra-putra Lord Mahavira through dialogues, examples, questions and answers.

(7) UPAASAKA-DASHAANGA:
The life stories of ten Shraavakas or lay followers, and practitioners of Jainism, their vows and the upkeep of the vows. This Anga is complement to the first one Achaaranga which covers life conduct for Saadhus.

(8) AANTAKRA-DASHAANGA:
The stories of the ten saadhus, who through severe monk life, destroyed all their Karmas, and attained Nirvaana, or Moksha.

(9) ANUTTARAUPAPAATIKA DASHAANGA:
The stories of the ten aachaaryas who achieved the topmost heavens as Gods. Upon completion of the life in higher heavens, their soul achieved rebirths as human beings. In this human life, following the life in heaven, their soul achieved Moksha, upon dissipating last of karmas.

(10) PRASNAVYAAKARANAANGA:
The procedures, and prohibitions of the religion. The explanations, and comparisons with other doctrines, and religious creeds through questions and answers.

(11) VIPAAKA SOOTRAANGA:
The stories, and illustrations of the fruits of the karmas, paapa (merit), and punya (demerit) Karmas.

(12) DRASTIVAADA: This has five divisions.
12.1 Parikrama - The description of jiva, ajiva, sun, moon, earth, oceans, tattvas etc.
12.2 Sootra - The differentiation between the right knowledge, and the wrong knowledge.
12.3 Anuyoga - The stories of great religious personalities.
12.4 Poorvagata - The fourteen Poorva-granthas of Lord Parswanaatha's time are included here.
12.5 Choolikaa - The knowledge to achieve super human abilities, such as, stop the flowing waters, pass through the fire, waters, walls, etc., transform, and travel to distant places with mantras, create miracles, to turn into different life forms, such different persons, animals such as elephant, lion etc., fly in the sky, change the forms of vegetables and metals, and many, many other sciences, education, and knowledge for super natural achievements.

[A.2] ANGA-BAAHYA-GRANTHAS: (Anga-external-scriptures)

The Anga-external-scriptures are not authored by the Ganadharas. The Anga-baahya-granthas were developed by the Shrutakevalis, those who had full knowledge of all, real, original twelve anga-granthas, and Dashpoorvi-shrutakevalis, those, who had full knowledge of eleven anga-granthas, and partial knowledge of twelfth anga-grantha to the extent of ten poorvas only. These writer aachaaryas, were in authoritative, top, supreme positions, in Jain sangha after the nirvaana of Lord Mahavira, and three Kevalis immediately following Mahavira. What these aachaaryas developed from the Aagama, and presented to the Jainism, was never found
in contradiction to the Aagama, and the divya-dhwani. Their creation contributed, to enlighten the Jainism, and as such received acceptance as the aagama holy scriptures.

[A.3] ANGA-BAAHYA GRANTHAS (Per Digambara sect):

According to, the digambara sect of Jainism there were fourteen anga-baahya- granthas or scriptures. These fourteen texts in their original, ancient version disappeared over a period of time. The knowledge, contained therein, is found in mixed up state in other Jain scriptures. The reconstruction, and recreation of this knowledge is widely used by the Jain monks, and laity alike with deep devotion even today. These fourteen granthas are as follows:

(1) SAAMAAYIKA
(2) CHATURVISHATISTAVA:
(3) VANDANAA
(4) PRATIKRAMANA
(5) VAINAYIKA
(6) KRATIKRAMA
(7) DASHAVAIKAALIKA
(8) UTTARAADHYAYANA
(9) KALPAVYAVAHAARA
(10) KALPAAKALPIKA
(11) MAHAAKALPIKA
(12) PUNDARIKA
(13) MAHAAPUNDARIKA
(14) NISHITHIKA


[A.4] ANGA-BAAHYA GRANTHAS (Per Swetaambara sect):

According to, the Swetaambara murtipujak sect of Jainism, there are thirty-four anga-baahya
granthas. These thirty four granthas are distributed in the following five categories:
(1) Upaanga - twelve granthas
(2) Prakeernaka - ten granthas
(3) Chhedasootra - six granthas
(4) Choolika Sootra - two granthas
(5) Moolasootra - four granthas.

The swetaambara murtipujak sect believes that the 11 Anga granthas, and 34 Anga-baahya granthas, totaling to 45 holy granthas are in valid existence in its original form today. According to Swetaambara-Sthaanakvaashi only 11 anga-granthas, and 21 anga-baahya-granthas, totalling to 32 holy aagama granthas are in valid existence in its original form today. The last anga-grantha Drastivaada is considered lost in time, and oblivion by all sects. The knowledge contained in the aang-baahya- granthas of both Digambara, and Swetaambara sects is resembling to the extent of their common beliefs, even though the titles, and categories are different. The 45 aagama granthas of swetaambara sect were organized, and given definitive written scriptural form in the year 454 AD, under the chairmanship of aachaarya Devardhigani in Valbhipur, Gujarat. The present aagama are these scriptures. The last anga-grantha Drastivaada could not be established definitively, and hence was left out.

[A.4.1] UPAANGA:
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(1) AUPAPAATIKA: The narration of King Konika who went to see Lord Mahavira. How to achieve birth
in Devaloka, or heaven through appropriate conduct.

(2) RAJPRASHNIYA: Keshi, the follower of Lord Parswanaatha, who brought King Pradeshi into the Jainism. Keshi then became Suryaabha God, and then came to offer his deepest respect Lord Mahavira as the God of the heaven.
(3) JEEVABHIGAMA: The description of the all varieties of the life in the Universe, and more specifically on earth.
(3) PRAGNAAPANAA: The description of the multi varieties of the life form, their characteristics, attributes, etc. This is authored by Aachaarya Aarya Shyaama (Kaalakaachaarya).
(5) SURYAPRAGNAPATI: The description of the Sun, planets, stars, space, and sky etc.
(6) JAMBUDWIPAPRAGNAPATI: The description of the planet earth, its geography, people, kings etc. who inhabitated there, long, long time in the past.
(7) CHANDRAPRAGNAPATI: The description of the Moon, planets, stars, space, and sky etc. This is identical to Suryapragnapati.
(8) NIRAYAAVALEE: The Jain story of ten princes, in collaboration with king Kunika, their step brother, went to war against their own grandfather, king Chetak of Vaishali, got killed in the war, and then their souls went to hell for their misdeeds.
(9) KALPAAVANANTSIKAA: The continuation of the story in Nirayaavalee. The same ten princes, in the
subsequent birth became monks, lived life of proper conduct, and then went to heaven.
(10) POOSHHPIKAA: The stories of the past incarnations of the devas, or Gods who worshipped Lord
Mahavira.
(11) PUSHPACHULIKA: The like stories described in Pooshhpikaa above.
(12) VRISHHNADASHAA: Lord Neminaatha, the twentysecond Teerthankara, who influenced ten kings of
Vishnu dynasty, and converted them to Jainism.

[A.4.2] PRAKEERNAKA:
====================
(1) CHATUSHARANA: Prayers and Atonements.
(2) CHATUR PRATYAAKHYAANA: The efforts of the great learned saints during their last days of life.
(3) BHAKTI PARIGNAA: The last rites prior to death of great learned saints
(4) SANSTAARAKA: Lay down the life for the right, and the religion.
(5) TANDULVAITAALIKAA: The knowledge of biological science, pregnancy, life, and other like sciences is described here.
(6) CHANDRAVEDHHYAKA: The relations between the teacher and the pupil, their efforts, co-operation, mutual influence etc. for achievements of knowledge and ultimate goal of Moksha.
(7) DEVENDRASTAVA: The account of the kings, who ruled the heavens.
(8) GANIVIDYAA: The science of Astrology, Astronomy, prediction, etc.
(9) MAHAAPRATYAAKHYAANA: The description of confessions, and atonements.
(10) VEERASTAVA: The various names by which Lord Mahavira is addressed in praises, stories, prayers, etc.

All ten prakeerna are considered not in conformance with Sthaanakvashi belief, and hence unacceptable to them as anga-baahya-granthas.

[A.4.3] CHHEDASOOTRA:
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(1) NISHITHA: The conduct, and religion of Saadhus, faults, confessions and
purifications.
(2) MAHAANISHITHA: The sins, confessions, and purifications. Aachhaarya Haribhadra prevented the total lost of the original scripture. The present version is as aachaarya Haribhadra reconstructed, and recreated.
(3)* VYAVAHAARA: The practical real life conduct, self-punishment, purification etc. This is authored by shrutkevali aachaarya Bhadrabahu.
(4) DASHAASHRUTASKANDHA, OR ACHAARDASHAA: The procedures of the conduct. The ninth chapter is aachaarya Bhadrabaahu's KALPA SOOTRA. The life characters, and history of teerthankaras, the rules for conduct, the names of sampradaayas are described here. Kalpa sootra is read during the holy period of paryushana parva of Jains.
(5) BRAHTKALPASOOTRA: The ways, and procedures to conduct the life by Saadhus, and
Saadhvis. This is authored by Shrutkevali aachaarya Bhadrabahu.
(6)* PANCHAKALPA, OR JEETAKALPA: The ways, and procedures to conduct the life by
Saadhus, and Saadhvis. Jeetakalpa is authored by aachaarya Jinabhadra. Upon the loss of original Panchkalpa, Jeetkalpa found place in this category of Chhedasootra.

[A.4.4] CHOOLIKAA SOOTRA:
=========================
(1) NANDISOOTRA: The description of the five categories of Knowledge. This is authored by Devarddhigani.
(2) ANUYOGADWAARASOOTRA: The total knowledge.

[A.4.5] MOOLASOOTRA:
====================
(1) UTTARAADHYAYANA: The stories on the principles of the Jainism., Examples, dialogues, questions, and answers, and preaching.
(2) AAVASHYAKA: The essential procedures to live day to day.
(3) DASHVAIKAALIKA: The rules for Saadhus to conduct the life. This is the creation of shrutkevali aachaarya Shayyambhava
(4)* PINDANIRYUKTI: The procedures to accept alms, and contributions by Saadhus for essential subsistence.

* These are considered not in conformance with Sthaanakvashi belief, and hence unacceptable to them as anga-baahya-granthas.

[A.4..6] POORVA-GRANTHAS: (Pre-existed-scriptures)
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These Poorva-granthas (Pre-existed-scriptures) were the Jain holy scriptures in existence prior to the time of Lord Mahavira the twentyfourth teerthankara, and from the time of Lord Paraswanaatha, the twentythird teerthankara. These scriptures, total fourteen in number, known as the fourteen Poorva-granthas, have disappeared, and not in existence. The knowledge of these fourteen volumes of Poorva-granthas was absorbed into the twelfth anga-grantha Drastivaada by Ganadharas, the chief disciples of Lord Mahavira.

However, it is believed, that this twelfth original anga-grantha Drastivaada, itself got lost in time. The knowledge we may have today is derived from the references, and is reconstructed. These fourteen poorva-granthas, identified by the contents, rather than the titles, are as follows:

(1) The creation, existence, status, and destruction of Dravya (Substance)
(2) Tattvas (Essential principles), and Dravyas (Substances)
(3) The power of Dravya, Great souls, and Gods
(4) Seven Nayas, and Pramaanas to determine the reality of the objects.
(5) Truth, and Mithyaagnaana (Wrong knowledge)
(6) Satyapravaada, True, and Untrue words and speeches.
(7) The nature of the Soul
(8) Karmapravaada
(9) Destruction of Karma
(10) Achieving the Knowledge
(11) Life stories of Sixty three Shalaakaa personalities
(12) Medicine
(13) Music, Singing, etc. performing arts, and Religious activities
(14) Universe, Religious activities, and Mathematics

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[B] JAINVEDA:
============
The Jainveda is divided into four anuyogas, or divisions as follows:

[B.1] PRATHAMAANUYOGA: (ITIHAASA - History of Jainism)
1.1 PADMAPURAANA by Aachaarya Ravisena
1.2 HARIVANSHAPURAANA by Aachaarya Jinsena
1.3 AADIPURAANA by Aachaarya Jinsena
1.4 UTTARAPURANA by Aachaarya Gunabhadra

[B.2] KARANAANUYOGA: (VISWAVYAAKHYAANA - Science of Universe)
2.1 SURYAPRAGNAPTI by Aachaarya Jayadhavala
2.2 CHANDRAPRAGNAPTI by Aachaarya Jayadhavala

[B.3] DRAVYAANUYOGA: (TATTVAGNAANA - Knowledge of Fundamental Principles of Jainism)
3.1 PANCHASTIKAAYASAARA by Aachaarya Kundakunda muni
3.2 PRAVACHANSAARA by Aachaarya Kundakunda muni
3.3 SAMAYASAARA by Aachaarya Kundakunda muni
3.4 NIYAMSAARA by Aachaarya Kundakunda muni
3.5 TATTVAARTHA-DHIGAMA-SHOOTRA by Aachaarya Umaswati or Umaswami
3.6 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Samantabhadra
3.7 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Vidyaananda
3.8 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Pujyapaada
3.9 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Akalanka
3.10 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Baalachandra
3.11 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Amritachandara
3.12 COMMENTARY ON Above by Aachaarya Jayasena
3.13 AAPTAMEEMAANSAA by Aachaarya Samantabhadra
3.14 COMMENTARY ON AAPTAMEEMAANSAA by Aachaarya Vidyaananda
3.15 COMMENTARY ON AAPTAMEEMAANSAA by Aachaarya Akalanka

[B.4] CHARANAANUYOGA: (NEETI - Conduct)
4.1 MOOLAACHAARA by Aachaarya Vatteura
4.2 TRIVANAACHAARA by Aachaarya Vatteura
4.3 RATNA-KARANDA-SHRAAVAKA-AACHAARA by Aachaarya Samantabhadra

The digambara sect believes that the original Aagama i.e. anga-granthas, and anga-baahya-granthas disappeared over a period of time, because of the lack of scientific preservation technic, and the natural calamities. In place of Aagama, the Digambaras have accepted the above scriptures as the valid religious scriptures of Jain principles, and practices, with appropriate rationale.

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[C] JAIN BIBLE:
============

MOKSHA SHAASTRA also known as TATTVAARTHASHOOTRAM also known as TATTVAARTHA- DHIGAMA-SHOOTRA by ACHAARYA UMASWAMI is the JAIN BIBLE. The Tattvaartha-Sutra or Tattvaarthaadhigama-Sutra or Mokshashaastra has been composed by one of the greatest geniuses of the world, Jain Aachaarya Shree Umaaswaati or Umaaswaami from southern part of India, more exactly from state of Mysore. Aachaarya Umaaswaami lived in the time period 135-219 A.D. He was the most famous disciple of the most reverently worshipped Saint Aachaarya Shree Kunda-Kundaachaarya.

The Tattvaartha-Sutra has been written in Sanskrit language and in Sutra style. The Tattvaartha-Sutra covers almost the entire range of Jainism, its philosophy, principles, and practices. The Tattvaartha-sutra has the utmost respect of all sects, and sub-sects of Jainism such as Digambara, Swetaambara and others. As a matter of fact every sect claims Aachaarya Umaswami to be of their sect. Now over a period of time it has come to be acknowledged by all the Jains as their Bible. Like Ramayana of Rama believing Hindus, Qurana of Muslims,
Bible of Christians, the Tattvaartha-Sutra is held in the highest sacredness by Jains. The Tattvaartha-Sutra is recited every day in the Jain temples, and in thousands and thousands of Jain homes. Every possible aspect of Jain philosophy is said to have been embodied in this great sacred epitome. There are tapes, books and lectures given by Jain scholars. There are thousands and thousands of references made to Tattvaartha-Sutra by
individual writers in their works.

There have been many commentaries written on Tattvaartha-Sutra by other learned and brilliant Jain Aachaaryas of Jainism from time to time from all over India. The well-known written commentaries of high scriptural level are by Aachaarya Samantabhadra, Aachaarya Vidyananda, AAchaarya Pujyapada, Aacharya Akalanka, Aachaarya Balchandra, Aachaarya Amritchandra, and Aachaarya Jaysena. The Tattvaartha-Sutra thus has proved to be a lush, dense, fertile, and profound source for elaboration by those talented masters of Jainism
who followed Aachaarya Umaswami. Such commentaries are not only dazzling in themselves but have contributed so much in the comprehension of Jainism.

The contents of Tattvaartha-Sutra has been spread over ten chapters. The first two chapters deal with the theory of knowledge, and also elaborate the Jain view of the life and soul in the universe. Next two chapters, that is chapter three and four are devoted to the Jain Cosmography. Chapter five deals with the inanimate world, especially Ontology(The study of nature of existence). Chapter five is comparable to the modern scientific developments on universe, atom, electron, time, space, physics etc. Chapters six through ten are ethical in
contents, deal with Karma doctrine, and the path to Salvation, Moksha, Nirvaana, or ultimate liberation.

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[D] COMPARABLE SCRIPTURES:
==========================

[D.1] JAIN Religion
================
PANCHASTIKAAYASAARA by Aachaarya Kundkund muni
PRAVANCHANSAARA by Aachaarya Kundkund muni
SAMAYASAARA by Aachaarya Kundkund muni
These three scriptures are called PRAABHRUTATRAYA, or Naatakatraya, or Saaratraya.

[D.2] VEDA (Hindu religion)
======================
UPANISHADAS
BRAHMASUTRA
BHAGAVAD GEETA
These three scriptures are called PRASTHAANATRAYA in Vedant religion

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[E] Notes:
PRONUNCIATIONS OF JAIN WORDS: A=CUT, AA=ALMOND, E=APPLE, EE=TEETH, I=HIM, O=OAT, OO=MOON, U=PUT, AU=NOW, AI=RAIN,G=GO

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